States continue to serve as laboratories for health care reform. In recent years, many of these state-based efforts have focused on:

1. Leveraging Employer-Based Coverage: With the goal of making health insurance coverage more affordable to small businesses and their employees, state tools include (a) premium assistance, (b) reinsurance to moderate high-risk cases, (c) state negotiated health plan options, and (d) hybrids mixing taxpayer and employer-sponsored models.

2. Pharmaceutical Purchasing: To improve the cost-effectiveness of prescription drug benefits, state-based reforms include (a) intra-state and multi-state purchasing pools, (b) negotiated discounts for low-income populations, and (c) evidence-based coverage combining preferred drug lists (PDLs) and supplemental rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers.

3. Care Management for High-Cost Patients: With over 75 percent of Medicaid costs driven by a small proportion of patients, states are developing new programs based on the latest care and disease management techniques.

4. Modernizing Uncompensated Care Programs: While taxpayers invest billions of dollars each year to help compensate hospitals for serving uninsured patients, most of these efforts are blunt, highly inefficient programs with misaligned incentives. Therefore, some states are exploring alternatives designed to leverage these funds to promote primary care.

To learn more about state-based reforms, including lessons learned, check out the work of our friends at the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI). ESRI�s excellent team, with support from the Commonwealth Fund, has a series of informative reports.